Depending on the stage of esophageal cancer, the following treatment methods are used:
- Ablation (radiofrequency, cryoablation, photodynamic);
- Endoscopic submucosal resection;
- Esophagectomy (removal of the esophagus).
Ablation for treatment of esophageal cancer is used only in case of in situ cancer when the tumor has not yet sprouted into neighboring tissues. This is also called 0 stage of cancer. At stage 1, minimally invasive procedure is also performed - submucosal resection, if the tumor does not grow into the muscle layer. In all other cases, the esophagus is removed completely. At 3 and 4 stages, neoadjuvant (before surgery) radiation therapy is performed.
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