Bladder cancer is an oncological disease when a malignant tumor grows from the wall of the bladder.
There are 2 types: invasive bladder cancer and non-invasive. Invasive cancer is a severe form with tumor germination through the walls of the bladder. Non-invasive cancer has a benign course: the formation does not go beyond the boundaries of the bladder.
A key method for diagnosing bladder tumors is cystoscopy - endoscopic examination of the bladder cavity and a biopsy to get an exact diagnosis.
The main diagnostic methods include a cytological examination of urine, computed tomography of the abdominal cavity and ultrasonography.
Transurethral resection of the tumor (removal of the bladder tumor) followed by immunotherapy or radiotherapy — the main method of treatment at early stages. With such treatment, the function of the bladder remains.
When the tumor sprouts into most of the bladder wall, surgery is — radical cystectomy (bladder removal) followed by the formation of an artificial bladder from the colon or small intestine (bladder plastic). Radiation and chemotherapeutic treatment are used in addition to surgery to prevent the return of the disease.
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