The fight against “inconvenient” rectal cancer in the XXI century: from the Middle Ages to the minimally invasive operations
The causes of rectal cancer and proper nutrition for its prevention
A malignant tumor of the rectum takes a strong third position among cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it accounts for 45-55% of all colorectal cancers. Scientists have connected the appearance of this carcinoma foremost with malnutrition and excessive alcohol consumption. Leading positions of disease incidence are taken by developed countries of the USA, Canada, Israel. The only exception is Japan, whose residents traditionally eat fiber-rich meal, that creates a natural barrier to the development of cancer.
Another reliable argument for cancer is smoking. And the leading positions relying on this indicator are taken by the countries of Eastern Europe. According to the World Lung Foundation data, the Russian Federation, for example, is the fourth country in consumption of cigarettes per man-year. Accordingly, it accounts annually for about 8% of all colorectal cancer disease worldwide, according to the World Health Organization studies. This article will tell you how the Israeli doctors treat this pathology.
Surgical innovations against colorectal cancer
The most effective way of treatment of a tumor is its complete removal from the body. With this purpose, the CIS countries used an open surgery - a wide abdominal incision and resection of the tumor with a part of the intestine. As a rule, the end of intestine was taking on the body surface to remove fecal masses. Besides the obvious inconvenience, open resection held some threat of infection and internal bleeding. The surgery required high proficiency of the surgeon, because of the proximity of vital organs with major vessels. The healing of surgical wounds took at least two months.
To minimize the risks at the surgery, Israeli clinics apply 2 minimally invasive approaches of laparoscopic resection and transanal endoscopic surgery (TEM).
Removal of the rectum tumor with the following rehabilitation within one week
Laparoscopic surgery does not require a wide tissue incision. To implement it, it is necessary to make several small (1-2 cm) incisions, for further introduction the video camera into them to the tumor area that allows the surgeon to control the process, the light source and special surgical instruments. Recovery after the surgery lasts no longer than 7 days.
The TEM technique is even less invasive. The tumor is removed without any abnormality of the outer cover. A special device proctoscope is introduced through the anus into the affected area. It is also provided with a set of instruments, a light source and a video camera. To increase the accuracy of the surgery, carbon dioxide is pumped into the intestine to straighten it. Surgical manipulations continue for around 4 hours. The patient is under hospital care just a day before returning to regular life.